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In Quantum Physics, quantum state refers to the state of a quantum systemQuantum system can be either pure or mixed. A pure quantum state is represented by a vector, called a state vector, in a Hilbert space. If this Hilbert space is represented as a function space, then its elements are called wave functions. When pairs or groups of particles are generated or interact in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently instead, a quantum state may be given for the system as a whole then the phenomenon entanglement occurs. Quantum vacuum zero-point energy is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical physical system may have. All quantum mechanical systems undergo fluctuations even in their ground state and have associated zero-point energy, a consequence of their wave-like nature. It is the energy of its ground state.

 

An Interpretation of quantum mechanics is a set of statements which attempt to explain how quantum mechanics informs our understanding of nature. In physics, the locality principle states that an object is only directly influenced by its immediate surroundings. A physical theory is said to be a local theory if it is consistent with the principle of locality. The quantum action is an operator, although it is superficially different from the path integral formulation where the action is a classical function, the modern formulation of the two formalisms are identical. Interpretations of quantum mechanics attempt to provide a conceptual framework for understanding the many aspects of quantum mechanics which are not easily handled by the conceptual framework used for classical physics.

 

Wave Particle Duality is the concept that every elementary particle entity exhibits the properties of not only particles, but also waves. It addresses the inability of the classical concepts "particle" or "wave" to fully describe the behaviour of quantum-scale objects. The WKB approximation is a method for finding approximate solutions to linear differential equations with spatially varying coefficients. It is typically used for a semi classical calculation in quantum mechanicsWightman axioms are an attempt at a mathematically rigorous formulation of quantum field theory.

The infrared (IR) divergence only appears in theories with massless particles (such as photons). They represent a legitimate effect that a complete theory often implies. One way to deal with it is to impose an infrared cut off and take the limit as the cut off approaches zero. BRST quantization denotes a relatively rigorous mathematical approach to quantizing a field theory with gauge symmetry. Quantization rules in earlier QFT frameworks resembled "prescriptions" or "heuristics" more than proofs, especially in non-abelian QFT, where the use of "ghost fields" with superficially bizarre properties is almost unavoidable for technical reasons related to renormalization and anomaly cancellation.

In physics, a string is a physical object that appears in string theory and related subjects. Unlike elementary particles, which are zero-dimensional or point-like by definition, strings are one-dimensional extended objects. Computational physics is the study and implementation of numerical analysis to solve problems in physics for which a quantitative theory already exists. Super symmetry (SUSY), a theory of particle physics, is a proposed type of space time symmetry that relates two basic classes of elementary particles: bosons, which have an integer-valued "spin", and fermions, which have a half-integer spin. In physicsstring theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.

In quantum mechanics, an energy level is said to be degenerate if it corresponds to two or more different measurable states of a quantum system. Conversely, two or more different states of a quantum mechanical system are said to be degenerate if they give the same value of energy upon measurement. The exchange interaction is a quantum mechanical effect between identical particles. (Actually, one should better speak only of the exchange energy, or the exchange term, to avoid the incorrect idea that this effect corresponds to a classical force or potential.) In particle physicsquantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics. In essence, it describes how light and matter interacts and is the first theory where full agreement between quantum mechanics and special relativity is achieved.

Nuclear engineering is the branch of engineering concerned with the application of the breakdown (fission) as well as the fusion of atomic nuclei and/or the application of other sub-atomic physics, based on the principles of nuclear physicsNuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. Nuclear material refers to the metals uraniumplutonium, and thorium, in any form, according to the IAEA. This is differentiated further into "source material", consisting of natural and depleted uranium, and "special fissionable material", consisting of enriched uranium (U-235)uranium-233, and plutonium-239. Fusion is the process of combining two or more distinct entities into a new whole. Fission is a splitting of something into two or more parts.

A nuclear reactor, formerly known as atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction. A nuclear power plant is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor. A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or a combination of fission and fusion (thermonuclear weapon). Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. Nuclear proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons, fissionable material, and weapons-applicable nuclear technology and information to nations not recognized as "Nuclear Weapon States" by the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, also known as the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty.

nuclear reactor, formerly known as atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reactionNuclear reactors are used at nuclear power plants for electricity generation and in propulsion of ships. Heat from nuclear fission is passed to a working fluid (water or gas), which runs through turbines. Condensed matter physics is a branch of physics that deals with the physical properties of condensed phases of matter. Condensed matter physicists seek to understand the behaviour of these phases by using physical laws.

Quantum dissipation is the branch of physics that studies the quantum analogues of the process of irreversible loss of energy observed at the classical level. Its main purpose is to derive the laws of classical dissipation from the framework of quantum mechanics. A dissipative system is a thermodynamically open system which is operating out of, and often far from, thermodynamic equilibrium in an environment with which it exchanges energy and matter. Quantum technology is a new field of physics and engineering, which transitions some of the stranger features of quantum mechanics, especially quantum entanglement and most recently quantum tunnelling, into practical applications such as quantum computingquantum cryptographyquantum simulationquantum metrologyquantum sensing, and quantum imaging.

Quantum computer maintains a sequence of qubits. A single qubit can represent a one, a zero, or any quantum superposition of those two qubit states; a pair of qubits can be in any quantum superposition of 4 states, and three qubits in any superposition. Nuclear reactors are used at nuclear power plants for electricity generation and in propulsion of ships. Heat from nuclear fission is passed to a working fluid (water or gas), which runs through turbines.